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Clinical Studies & Research



Efficacy of Probiotics on Anxiety: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Neuropsychiatry (London) (2017)

"Our study demonstrated that probiotics can decrease DASS values in populations with anxiety; however, the findings here must be generalized with caution due to the high level of heterogeneity. Regardless, the outcomes are a source of optimism with regard to the management of anxiety. More adequately powered RCTs using standardized measurements are required to assess which species of probiotics and dosages and what treatment periods are most efficacious for anxiety."

Astragalus (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease

Cochrane Review -22 October 2014

"Although Astragalus as an adjunctive treatment to conventional therapies was found to offer some promising effects in reducing proteinuria and increasing haemoglobin and serum albumin, suboptimal methodological quality and poor reporting meant that definitive conclusions could not be made based on available evidence."

A Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy of TCM Decoctions Made from Formulas in the Liuwei Dihuang Wan Categorized Formulas in Treating Diabetic Nephropathy Proteinuria.

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"TCM formulas included in the LDWCFs are safe and effective in the treatment of DN proteinuria. These findings suggested that the TCM therapeutic principle of "kidney-tonifying" is a valuable addition to the treatment strategies for DN."

Acupuncture Meta-analysis

​Level 1 Scientific Evidence for Acupuncture 


Acupuncture for Chronic Pain: Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis.A meta-analysis of 17,992 patients shows highly significant effects (p<0.01) of acupuncture for 4 chronic pain conditions: back & neck pain, osteoarthritis, chronic headaches & shoulder pain. The authors of the study conclude that: the results from individual patient data meta-analyses of nearly 18 000 randomised patients in high-quality RCTs provide the most robust evidence to date that acupuncture is a reasonable referral option for patients with chronic pain.

Zinc for the common cold.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 18;

"Zinc administered within 24 hours of onset of symptoms reduces the duration of common cold symptoms in healthy people but some caution is needed due to the heterogeneity of the data. As the zinc lozenges formulation has been widely studied and there is a significant reduction in the duration of cold at a dose of ≥ 75 mg/day, for those considering using zinc it would be best to use it at this dose throughout the cold. Regarding prophylactic zinc supplementation, currently no firm recommendation can be made because of insufficient data. When using zinc lozenges (not as syrup or tablets) the likely benefit has to be balanced against side effects, notably a bad taste and nausea."1

1. Zinc for the common cold; Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 18; Singh M1, Das RR.

Do probiotics have a role in the treatment of allergic rhinitis? A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2016 Sep

"Despite high variability among the studies, synthesis of available data provided significant evidence of beneficial clinical and immunologic effects of probiotics in the treatment of AR, especially with seasonal AR and LP-33 strains. With the rising pool of studies, the most promising strains in specific allergies can be revealed and adjuvant therapy with probiotics can be recommended for the treatment of AR."1

1. Do probiotics have a role in the treatment of allergic rhinitis? A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis.; Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2016 Sep

A meta-analysis on acupuncture treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome - PubMed

Acupuncture for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013

Acupuncture for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018

Oriental herbal medicine and moxibustion for polycystic ovary syndrome: A meta-analysis. - PubMed - NCBI

Effectiveness of co-treatment with traditional Chinese medicine and letrozole for polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis. - PubMed - NCBI

Chinese Herbal formula for preventing stroke

A Cochrane review of three RCTs (5042 participants) were included. One higher quality study (4415 participants) compared Nao-an capsule with aspirin for primary prevention in high-risk stroke populations. Nao-an capsule appeared to reduce the incidence of stroke compared with aspirin. 

The authors conclude that the herbal capsule may be a choice for the primary prevention of stroke. However, due to study limiations no firm conclusions can be drawn and a further high quality research is required.

Prebiotics in infants for prevention of allergy - Osborn, DA - 2013 | Cochrane Library

Probiotics (live micro-organisms) to prevent upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) (for example, the common cold) | Cochrane

Probiotics for children with recurrent abdominal pain. JAMA Pediatr 2019

Hawthorn extract may be used as an oral treatment option for chronic heart failure | Cochrane

Vitamin B3 and non-melanoma skin cancer - Cancer Council

Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) -Crocus sativus L. versus methylphenidate in treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind pilot study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2019.


​Healthy lifestyle and the primary prevention of cancer

A recent article published by Medical Journal of Australia states "It is estimated that at least a third of all cancer cases are preventable.


In June 2015, Cancer Australia released Lifestyle risk factors and the primary prevention of cancer, a position statement that provides a summary of the best available evidence drawn from international literature on cancer risk reduction and modifiable risk factors.


Obesity identified as a risk factor for a number of cancers including breast, colon, endometrium and kidney. " (1)


1. Helen Zorbas Med J Aust 2016; 204 (7): 255.


Web link:

Mediterranean-style diet for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019

​Preventing disease through healthy environments:

Towards an estimate of the environmental burden of disease



How much disease could be prevented through better management of our environment? The environment influences our health in many ways — through exposures to physical, chemical and biological risk factors, and through related changes in our behaviour in response to those factors. To answer this question, the available scientific evidence was summarized and more than 100 experts were consulted for their estimates of how much environmental risk factors contribute to the disease burden of 85 diseases.

This report summarizes the results globally, by 14 regions worldwide, and separately for children. The evidence shows that environmental risk factors play a role in more than 80% of the diseases regularly reported by the World Health Organization. Globally, nearly one quarter of all deaths and of the total disease burden can be attributed to the environment. In children, however, environmental risk factors can account for slightly more than one-third of the disease burden.

These findings have important policy implications, because the environmental risk factors that were studied largely can be modified by established, cost-effective interventions. The interventions promote equity by benefiting everyone in the society, while addressing the needs of those most at risk.

World Health Organization (WHO)

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